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AUTHORITIES OF TAMILNADU

STANDARD SEVEN

TERM I VOLUME three or more

SCIENCE SOCIABLE SCIENCE

NOT FOR SALE

Untouchability is Inhuman and a Crime

A Publication Under Cost-free Textbook Program of Government of Tamilnadu

Office of School Education

В© Government of Tamilnadu

First Edition - 2013

(Published below Uniform System of School Education Scheme in Trimester Pattern)

Textbook Prepared and Published by

State Authorities of Educational Research and Training

School Road, Chennai - 600 006.

Book Printing

Tamilnadu Textbook Company

College Street, Chennai - 600 006.

This book has been printed about 80 G. S. Meters Maplitho Conventional paper

Price: Rs.

Printed by Web Counter at:

Textbook available at

www.textbooksonline.tn.nic.in

ii

ITEMS

UNIT THEME PAGE NO . (1 -- 122)

TECHNOLOGY

BIOLOGY 1 ) 2 . Animal kingdom Cellular material CHEMISTRY a few. 4. Is definitely matter about us real? Atomic structure PHYSICS a few. 6. 7. Measuring instruments Motion Liquids Practicals

a few 24

39 54

69 81 info 114

3

CONTENTS

DEVICE TOPIC SOCIABLE SCIENCE RECORD 1 . 2 . 3. Old Civilizations Intellectual Awakening in 6th 100 years B. C. Medieval Era GEOGRAPHY 1 ) 2 . three or more. 4. 5. Tamil Nadu Physiography of Tamil Nadu Climate of Tamil Nadu Resources of Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu - Agriculture CIVICS 1 ) The Union Government ECONOMICS 1 . Require and Supply 233 220 162 169 177 189 205 124 a hunread forty two 151 WEBPAGE NO . (123 - 236)

iv

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

STANDARD EIGHT

TERM I actually

SCIENCE

one particular

Note towards the teacher… Even as present this kind of revised model of the Scientific research Textbook, we would like to express each of our deepest appreciation to the students and the educating community for their enthusiastic answers. In research some principles could be put through change from time to time as fresh theories and principles happen to be constantly getting evolved. We certainly have tried to present facts and concepts of science (both concrete and abstract) within a visually appealing manner with out detracting from the information. Activity centered learning has become accepted since the basis of science education. These actions should be thought to be a means to get open-ended analysis rather than intended for verification of principles/content succumbed the textbook has been created to facilitate affordable activities and experiments using locally obtainable materials. With a view to improvement the activities, we have now segregated them into three groups: con I Do y We Carry out - actions to be created by an individual spanish student. - activities to be made by a group of scholars and

sumado a We See - activities to be exhibited by the instructor. The third number of activities have got a higher level of difficulty or require cautious handling as it may involve working with chemicals, electrical power etc ., The " More to know” snippets in the text presents some unconventional and interesting facts or perhaps information where the students need not be reviewed. The evaluation section can be nothing but an additional space intended for learning in a different method. As primary is in understanding, marque learning is usually to be discouraged carefully. Application of discovered ideas, problem solver skills and critical thinking is to be prompted. There could be range for more than one particular answer to a question, which should be identified always. To facilitate even more reference, books and websites have been advised at the end of every lesson. Suggestions and beneficial criticism will be most meet. Valuable ideas will be appropriately incorporated. - Authors [email protected] com

2

BIOLOGY

Launch

CHAPTER -- 1

You will find millions and millions of various organisms living along around and about us. May we keep in mind all by their particular names? Biologists have helped us achieve this by sorting all living things into important groups. Family pets originated roughly 600 , 000, 000 years ago. Much more than 2 mil existing varieties of animals have been identified. Of the more than doze, 72, 500 are invertebrates and less than 62, 000 species will be vertebrates. The program of sorting living creatures into different...

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