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Peter Willetts: " Transnational actors and international businesses in global politics” (2008)

1 . Intro

-> foreign relations will need to no longer be viewed as ‘states' getting together with each other: sama dengan from realist to pluralist approach

sama dengan international relationships and global politics as the discussion of: - states or governments

-- transnational companies (Nestlé, Covering, Ford, …)

- national NGOs


- INGOs (Amnesty International, WWF, …)

2 . Problems with the state-centric procedure

-> 5 main concerns:

1) ambiguity between distinct meanings of ‘state'

= legal person?

= political community?

= apparatus of presidency?

=> this article: government perspective (disentangle point out and its citizens) 2) deficiency of similarity among countries

sama dengan legally equal but see very different

electronic. g.: difference in size, population, economy, governmental system, … = a few transnational stars are larger than countries in terms of users, GDP, … 3) point out systems and international systems

= phony assumption that states are situated in anarchic international system 4) big difference between point out and land

= nations around the world cross point out boundaries just like transnational actors

= country-based political systems are hence not necessarily even more coherent than global

three or more. Transnational businesses as politics actors

-> transnational businesses as companies with subsidiaries outside the home country = a lot more TNCs from developing countries

= important consequences:

- financial runs and loss in sovereignty

at the. g.: foreign currency no longer countrywide in EU, national guidelines don't influence intra organization trade

- triangulation and loss of sovereignty

e. g.: indirect operate can't be eliminated

- regulating arbitrage and loss of sovereignty


e. g.: corporations can jeopardize to close internet marketers in a specific country and move to a different one when conditions are not good anymore (Ryanair) - extraterritoriality and sovereignty

e. g.: TNCs with bases in various countries can cause clashes of sovereignty among those countries

- coming from domestic deregulation to global re-regulation

= economic control is occurring in global level because of TNCs = several factors which will lead to more globalization of politics:

a) governments can easily reassert control by behaving collectively b) consumer pressure leads to global codes of conduct which are accepted by companies and implemented by NGOs

c) global firms pushed to submit to environmental auditing => Leads to assistance of governments, NGOs and UN to recruit significant TNCs in order to help apply UN rules of human being rights and so forth

4. Non-legitimate groups and liberation actions as political actors -> transnational offense must be recognized between:

- activity that is certainly considered criminal by the complete world

- activity of which actors claim it legitimate political purposes (dictatorial regimes, terrorism, …) -> transnational criminals and the political effects:

= same problems to get sovereignty much like TNCs:

-- criminal financial flows

- criminal trade too diversified via triangulation

- law enforcement officials action displaces crime abroad rather than stopping it - international drug trade requires extraterritorial legal system BUT: Excessive levels of worldwide police co-operation ( TNCs) -> terrorists, guerrillas, and national freedom movements: = all conditions for motions or hispanics that decline a governments' legitimacy -- terrorists by those who deplore

- guerrillas by those who are more fairly neutral

- nationwide liberation by simply those who are for

= only get intercontinental recognition whenever they don't use assault = threat of transnational terrorism seeing that 9/11

= °International Lawbreaker Court & UN's quality of ‘collective responsibility to protect' -> significance of criminals, terrorists, and guerrillas:

= terrorism is not a single personal force (though it reveals transnational characteristics) = government authorities can't respond to it as independent full sovereign coin actors


5. NGOs...